A small diameter, fibrous vascular conduit generated from a poly(ester urethane)urea and phospholipid polymer blend
The thrombotic and hyperplastic limitations associated with synthetic small diameter vascular grafts have generated sustained interest in finding a tissue engineering solution for autologous vascular segment generation in situ. One approach is to place a biodegradable scaffold at the site that would provide acute mechanical support while vascular tissue develops. To generate a scaffold that possessed both non-thrombogenic character and mechanical properties appropriate for vascular tissue, a biodegradable poly(ester urethane)urea (PEUU) and non-thrombogenic bioinspired phospholipid polymer, poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine-co-methacryloyloxyethyl butylurethane) (PMBU) were blended at PMBU weight fractions of 0–15% and electrospun to create fibrous scaffolds. The composite scaffolds were flexible with breaking strains exceeding 300%, tensile strengths of 7–10 MPa and compliances of 2.9–4.4 × 10−4 mmHg−1. In vitro platelet deposition on the scaffold surfaces significantly decreased with increasing PMBU content. Rat smooth muscle cell proliferation was also inhibited on PEUU/PMBU blended scaffolds with greater inhibition at higher PMBU content. Fibrous vascular conduits (1.3 mm inner diameter) implanted in the rat abdominal aorta for 8 weeks showed greater patency for grafts with 15% PMBU blending versus PEUU without PMBU (67% versus 40%). A thin neo-intimal layer with endothelial coverage and good anastomotic tissue integration was seen for the PEUU/PMBU vascular grafts. These results are encouraging for further evaluation of this technique in larger diameter applications for longer implant periods.
Journal: Biomaterials - Volume 30, Issue 13, May 2009, Pages 2457–2467