The role of whole blood in thrombin generation in contact with various titanium surfaces
Understanding of the thrombotic response (activation of the intrinsic coagulation system followed by platelet activation) from blood components upon contact with a titanium dental implant is important and not fully understood. The aims of this study were to evaluate: (1) the thrombogenic response of whole blood, platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet-poor plasma (PPP) in contact with a highly thrombogenic surface as titanium, (2) the thrombogenic response of clinically used surfaces as hydroxyapatite (HA), machined titanium (mTi), TiO2 grit-blasted titanium (TiOB) and fluoride ion-modified grit-blasted titanium (TiOB-F). An in vitro slide chamber model, furnished with heparin, was used in which whole blood, PRP or PPP came in contact with slides of the test surfaces. After incubation (60 min rotation at 22 rpm in a 37 °C water bath), blood/plasma was mixed with EDTA or citrate, further centrifuged at +4 °C (2200g at 10 min). Finally, plasma was collected pending analysis. Whole blood in contact with Ti alloy resulted in the binding of platelets to the material surface and in the generation of thrombin–antithrombin (TAT) complexes. With whole blood TAT levels increased 1000-fold compared with PRP and PPP, in which both almost no increase of TAT could be detected. In addition, the platelet activation showed a similar pattern with a 15-fold higher release of β-TG in whole blood. In the in vitro chamber model with the clinically relevant materials, the fluoride-modified surface (TiOB-F) showed pronounced TAT generation compared with TiOB, mTi and HA. Similar results were achieved for platelet consumption and activation markers of the intrinsic coagulation system. Taken together these results implicates first that whole blood is necessary for sufficient thrombin generation and platelet activation during placement of implants. Second, a fluoride ion modification seems to augment the thrombogenic properties of titanium.
Journal: Biomaterials - Volume 28, Issue 6, February 2007, Pages 966–974