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Supercritical CO2 fluid-foaming of polymers to increase porosity: A method to improve the mechanical and biocompatibility characteristics for use as a potential alternative to allografts in impaction bone grafting?

Paper ID Volume ID Publish Year Pages File Format Full-Text
1083 74 2012 10 PDF Available
Title
Supercritical CO2 fluid-foaming of polymers to increase porosity: A method to improve the mechanical and biocompatibility characteristics for use as a potential alternative to allografts in impaction bone grafting?
Abstract

Disease transmission, availability and cost of allografts have resulted in significant efforts to find an alternative for use in impaction bone grafting (IBG). Recent studies identified two polymers with both structural strength and biocompatibility characteristics as potential replacements. The aim of this study was to assess whether increasing the polymer porosity further enhanced the mechanical and cellular compatibility characteristics for use as an osteogenic biomaterial alternative to allografts in IBG. Solid and porous poly(DL-lactide) (PDLLA) and poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PDLLGA) scaffolds were produced via melt processing and supercritical CO2 foaming, and the differences characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Mechanical testing included milling and impaction, with comparisons made using a shear testing rig as well as a novel agitation test for cohesion. Cellular compatibility tests for cell number, viability, and osteogenic differentiation using WST-1 assays, fluorostaining, and ALP assays were determined following 14 day culture with skeletal stem cells. SEM showed excellent porosity throughout both of the supercritical-foam-produced polymer scaffolds, with pores between 50 and 200 μm. Shear testing showed that the porous polymers exceeded the shear strength of allograft controls (P < 0.001). Agitation testing showed greater cohesion between the particles of the porous polymers (P < 0.05). Cellular studies showed increased cell number, viability, and osteogenic differentiation on the porous polymers compared to solid block polymers (P < 0.05). The use of supercritical CO2 to generate porous polymeric biodegradable scaffolds significantly improves the cellular compatibility and cohesion observed compared to non-porous counterparts, without substantial loss of mechanical shear strength. These improved characteristics are critical for clinical translation as a potential osteogenic composite for use in IBG.

Keywords
Bone tissue engineering; Biocompatibility; Mesenchymal stem cell; Porosity; Scaffold
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Supercritical CO2 fluid-foaming of polymers to increase porosity: A method to improve the mechanical and biocompatibility characteristics for use as a potential alternative to allografts in impaction bone grafting?
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Publisher
Database: Elsevier - ScienceDirect
Journal: Acta Biomaterialia - Volume 8, Issue 5, May 2012, Pages 1918–1927
Authors
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Subjects
Physical Sciences and Engineering Chemical Engineering Bioengineering
Get Full-Text Now
Don't Miss Today's Special Offer
Price was $35.95
You save - $31
Price after discount Only $4.95
100% Money Back Guarantee
Full-text PDF Download
Online Support
Any Questions? feel free to contact us