A PLGA membrane controlling cell behaviour for promoting tissue regeneration
Barrier membranes are used in periodontal applications with the aim of supporting bone regeneration by physically blocking migrating epithelial cells. We report a membrane design that has a surface topography that can inhibit epithelial cell migration and proliferation on one side and a topography that guides osteoblast migration to a desired area. A PLGA copolymer (85:15) blended with MePEG, was cast to have surfaces with smooth, grooved or sandblasted-acid-etched topographies. Epithelial cells spread on smooth surfaces after 24 h, and cell numbers increased after 5 days. Cells on the smooth surface exhibited no preferred direction of migration. On the sandblasted-acid-etched topography epithelial cells spread but the cell number did not significantly increase after 5 days. Cell migration was inhibited on this surface. Osteoblasts spread on both grooved and smooth surfaces and cell number increased after 5 days on all surfaces. The cells that adhered in the grooves migrated preferentially in the direction of the grooves. Positive alkaline phosphatase staining was seen on all surfaces within 4 weeks and positive Von Kossa nodule staining within 6 weeks. These results suggest that surface topographies replicated on opposite sides of a biodegradable polymers membrane can inhibit proliferation and migration of the epithelial cells, and promote proliferation and directional migration of osteoblasts. Addition of appropriate surface topographies to membranes used in guided tissue regeneration has the possibility of improving clinical performance in periodontal tissue regeneration procedures.
Journal: Biomaterials - Volume 26, Issue 35, December 2005, Pages 7447–7456