The performance of human dental pulp stem cells on different three-dimensional scaffold materials
The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo behavior of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) isolated from impacted third molars, when seeded onto different 3-dimensional (3-D) scaffold materials: i.e. a spongeous collagen, a porous ceramic, and a fibrous titanium mesh. Scaffolds were loaded with DPSC, and subsequently divided into two groups. The first group was cultured in osteogenic differentiation medium in vitro for 4 weeks. The second group of samples was implanted subcutaneously in nude mice for 6 or 12 weeks. Samples cultured in vitro were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and RT-PCR for dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) expression. In vivo samples were evaluated by histology, RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The results indicated that in vitro, cells developed abundant deposition of mineralized extracellular matrix (ECM) with expression of DSPP in all 3-D materials. The simultaneous implantation experiment showed formation of tissue that was DSPP positive in all three scaffolds materials. However, the aspect of the formed tissues in all scaffolds resembled more connective tissue than a dentin-like tissue. Limited calcification of the ECM was only seen in the ceramic scaffold. In both experiments, no other differences could be attributed to the different materials used. In conclusion, the in vivo behavior of DPSC and their relations with 3-D scaffold materials should be further studied before clinical use can be considered.
Journal: Biomaterials - Volume 27, Issue 33, November 2006, Pages 5658–5668