Sphene ceramics for orthopedic coating applications: An in vitro and in vivo study
The host response to titanium alloy (Ti–6Al–4V) is not always favorable as a fibrous layer may form at the skeletal tissue–device interface, causing aseptic loosening. Recently, sphene (CaTiSiO5) ceramics were developed by incorporating Ti in the Ca–Si system, and found to exhibit improved chemical stability. The aim of this study is to evaluate the in vitro response of human osteoblast-like cells, human osteoclasts and human microvascular endothelial cells to sphene ceramics and determine whether coating Ti–6Al–4V implants with sphene enhances anchorage to surrounding bone. The study showed that sphene ceramics support human osteoblast-like cell attachment with organized cytoskeleton structure and express increased mRNA levels of osteoblast-related genes. Sphene ceramics were able to induce the differentiation of monocytes to form functional osteoclasts with the characteristic features of f-actin and αvβ3 integrin, and express osteoclast-related genes. Human endothelial cells were also able to attach and express the endothelial cell markers ZO-1 and VE-Cadherin when cultured on sphene ceramics. Histological staining, enzyme histochemistry and immunolabelling were used for identification of mineralized bone and bone remodelling around the coated implants. Ti–6Al–4V implants coated with sphene showed new bone formation and filled the gap between the implants and existing bone in a manner comparable to that of the hydroxyapatite coatings used as control. The new bone was in direct contact with the implants, whereas fibrous tissue formed between the bone and implant with uncoated Ti–6Al–4V. The in vivo assessment of sphene-coated implants supports our in vitro observation and suggests that they have the ability to recruit osteogenic cells, and thus support bone formation around the implants and enhance osseointegration.
Journal: Acta Biomaterialia - Volume 5, Issue 8, October 2009, Pages 3192–3204