Chemistry and the biological response against immunoisolating alginate–polycation capsules of different composition
Implantation of microencapsulated cells has been proposed as a therapy for a wide variety of diseases. An absolute requirement is that the applied microcapsules have an optimal biocompatibility. The alginate-poly-l-lysine system is the most commonly applied system but is still suffering from tissue responses provoked by the capsule materials. In the present study, we investigate the biocompatibility of microcapsules elaborated with two commonly applied alginates, i.e. an intermediate-G alginate and a high-G alginate. These alginates were coated with poly-l-lysine (PLL), poly-d-lysine (PDL) and poly-l-ornithine (PLO). The main objective of this study is to determine the interaction of each alginate matrix with the different polycations and the potential impact of these interactions in the modulation of the host's immune response. To address these issues the different types of microcapsules were implanted into the peritoneal cavity of rats for 1 month. After this period the microcapsules were recovered and they were evaluated by different techniques. Monochromatised X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was performance and the degree of capsular recovery, overgrowth on each capsule, and the cellular composition of the overgrowth were evaluated by histology. Our results illustrate that the different observed immune responses are the consequence of the variations in the interactions between the polycations and alginates rather than to the alginates themselves. Our results suggest that PLL is the best option available and that we should avoid using PLO and PDL in its present form since it is our goals to produce capsules that lack overgrowth and do not induce an immunological response as such.
Journal: Biomaterials - Volume 27, Issue 28, October 2006, Pages 4831–4839