The effect of high-density-lipoprotein on thrombus formation on and endothelial cell attachement to biomaterial surfaces
Cardiovascular implants such as vascular grafts fail frequently because they lack genuine blood-compatibility. The blood-contacting surface should simultaneously prevent thrombus formation and promote formation of a confluent endothelial cell layer, to achieve sustained haemostasis. Contact activation and endothelialization are known to be determined by the plasma proteins which adsorb onto virtually all synthetic surfaces almost immediately upon contact with blood. A common approach in blood-compatibility research is, therefore, to use hydrophilic biomaterials, which are sometimes claimed to be “protein-repellent”. We report here that, for synthetic polymeric surfaces, hydrophilicity is by no means synonymous to protein-repellency. We discovered that significant amounts of proteins, especially high-density lipoprotein, adsorb to hydrophilic surfaces. Pre-incubation of hydrophilic synthetic surfaces with high-density lipoprotein provides a blood–biomaterial interface, which inhibits thrombin generation and subsequent thrombus formation, and also accommodates overgrowth with a confluent endothelial layer. This approach may open the way to truly functional small-caliber arterial prostheses, and may also be relevant to cardiovascular tissue engineering in which de novo vascular tissues are cultured on or within a biomaterial scaffold.
Journal: Biomaterials - Volume 27, Issue 14, May 2006, Pages 2813–2819