Dose-dependent cell growth in response to concentration modulated patterns of FGF-2 printed on fibrin
Immobilized patterns of unmodified fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), with varying surface concentrations, were inkjet printed onto physiologically relevant fibrin substrates. Printed patterns were characterized using iodinated FGF-2 to determine FGF-2 surface concentration and retention of FGF-2 binding in vitro. MG-63 cells were uniformly seeded onto patterned substrates. Cells were exposed to defined spatial FGF-2 surface concentrations of 1–22 pg/mm2. Cell numbers were observed to increase in register with the printed FGF-2 patterns from an initial random uniform cell distribution across the patterned and non-patterned regions. Based on time-lapse image analysis, the primary organizational response of the cells was determined to be proliferation and not migration. Cell counts on and off the FGF-2 patterns over time demonstrated an increase in cell density up to a FGF-2 surface concentration of 14 pg/mm2. Higher surface concentrations did not result in increased cell density. In addition, the cells on the FGF-2 patterns survived longer than the cells off patterns. Our inkjet printing approach permits the systematic study of cellular responses to defined spatial surface concentrations of immobilized growth factors.
Journal: Biomaterials - Volume 27, Issue 10, April 2006, Pages 2213–2221