Ectopic bone formation in collagen sponge self-assembled peptide–amphiphile nanofibers hybrid scaffold in a perfusion culture bioreactor
The objective of this study was to enhance ectopic bone formation in a three-dimensional (3-D) hybrid scaffold in combination with bioreactor perfusion culture system. The hybrid scaffold consists of two biomaterials, a hydrogel formed through self-assembly of peptide–amphiphile (PA) with cell suspensions in media, and a collagen sponge reinforced with poly(glycolic acid) (PGA) fiber incorporation. PA was synthesized by standard solid-phase chemistry that ends with the alkylation of the NH2 terminus of the peptide. A 3-D network of nanofibers was formed by mixing cell suspensions in media with dilute aqueous solution of PA. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation revealed the formation of fibrous assemblies with an extremely high aspect ratio and high surface areas. Osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in the hybrid scaffold was greatly influenced by the perfusion culture method compared with static culture method. When the osteoinduction activity of hybrid scaffold was studied following the implantation into the back subcutis of rats in terms of histological and biochemical examinations, significantly homogeneous bone formation was histologically observed throughout the hybrid scaffolds when perfusion culture was used compared with static culture method. The level of alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin content at the implanted sites of hybrid scaffolds were significantly high for the perfusion group compared with those in static culture method. We conclude that combination of MSC-seeded hybrid scaffold and the perfusion method was promising to enhance in vitro osteogenic differentiation of MSC and in vivo ectopic bone formation.
Journal: Biomaterials - Volume 27, Issue 29, October 2006, Pages 5089–5098