Osteoinductive porous titanium implants: Effect of sodium removal by dilute HCl treatment
In a previous study, we observed that chemically and thermally treated plasma-sprayed porous titanium possesses intrinsic osteoinductivity and that bone formation occurs after 12 months in the muscles of beagle dogs. The aim of this study was to optimize the surface treatment and to accelerate the osteoinductivity. Previous studies have reported that sodium removal converts the sodium titanate layer on the surface of an alkali-treated titanium plate into a more bioactive titania layer. In this study, we developed a dilute hydrochloric acid (HCl) treatment for porous titanium, which removed sodium from the complexly shaped porous structure more effectively than conventional hot water treatment. Three types of surface treatments were applied: (a) alkali and heat treatment (AH treatment); (b) alkali, hot water, and heat treatment (Water–AH treatment); and (c) alkali, dilute HCl, hot water, and heat treatment (HCl–AH treatment). The osteoinductivity of the materials implanted in the back muscles of adult beagle dogs was examined at 3, 6, and 12 months. The HCl–AH-treated porous bioactive titanium implant had the highest osteoinductivity, with induction of a large amount of bone formation within 3 months. The dilute HCl treatment was considered to give both chemical (titania formation and sodium removal) and topographic (etching) effects on the titanium surface, although we cannot determine which is the predominant factor. Nevertheless, adding the dilute HCl treatment to the conventional chemical and thermal treatments is a promising candidate for advanced surface treatment of porous titanium implants.
Journal: Biomaterials - Volume 27, Issue 13, May 2006, Pages 2682–2691