Mouse embryonic stem cell colonisation of carbonated apatite surfaces
Apatites play a crucial role in the body and have been used extensively in biomedical implants. The influence on stem cell behaviour is not known and so this study will explore whether sintered carbonated apatites are favourable for propagation of stem cells. Different weight substitutions of carbonated apatite, specifically 2.5 wt% (2.5 wt%CAP) and 5 wt% (5 wt%CAP), were sintered and characterised prior to the investigation of their potential as a matrix for the support of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. Characterisation of the apatites included elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction, surface roughness, specific surface area, density, and solubility. The ability of carbonated apatite to support mouse ES cell colonisation and maintenance in the presence of leukaemia inhibitory factor was determined by an enumeration of live versus dead cells within a population, and immunoreactivity to Oct4, a transcription factor and stem cell marker, following growth on each matrix. It was found that while both compositions allowed for the colonisation of mouse ES cells, the cells were not maintained in an undifferentiated state, as evidenced by a reduction in the number of cells staining positive for Oct4 expression. This study shows that an increase in carbonate content within sintered apatites leads to a higher cell number, a desired aspect for stem cells to populate scaffolds intended for tissue engineering. This study presents carbonated apatites as a suitable matrix for the initial colonisation and differentiation of ES cells for tissue engineering applications.
Journal: Biomaterials - Volume 27, Issue 4, February 2006, Pages 615–622