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Promotion of opsonization by antibodies and phagocytosis of Gram-positive bacteria by a bifunctional polyacrylamide

Paper ID Volume ID Publish Year Pages File Format Full-Text
12053 775 2006 12 PDF Available
Title
Promotion of opsonization by antibodies and phagocytosis of Gram-positive bacteria by a bifunctional polyacrylamide
Abstract

This paper describes the application of a bifunctional polyacrylamide (pA–V–F) presenting both vancomycin and fluorescein groups, to modify the surfaces of multiple species of Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Enterococcus faecalis) to control molecular recognition of these surfaces. The vancomycin groups allowed the specific recognition of a structural component of the bacterial cell wall: peptides terminated in d–Ala–d–Ala. The fluorescein groups allowed the imaging of binding of polymer to the surfaces of bacteria by fluorescence, and are representative, low molecular weight haptens; their recognition by anti-fluorescein antibodies provides proof-of-principle that bifunctional polymers can be used to introduce haptens onto the surface of the bacteria. Flow cytometry revealed that polymer-labeled S. aureus and S. pneumoniae were opsonized by anti-fluorescein antibodies ∼20-fold more than were untreated bacteria; nearly all (∼92%) polymer-labeled S. aureus, and a large (76%) fraction of polymer-labeled S. pneumoniae were opsonized. The bound antibodies then promoted phagocytosis of the bacteria by cultured J774 macrophage-like cells. Flow cytometry revealed that macrophages ingested S. aureus decorated with the polymer-antibody complexes ∼2-fold more efficiently than S. aureus in control groups, in spite of the high background (caused by efficient antibody-independent ingestion of S. aureus by macrophages). This paper, thus, demonstrates the ability of a bifunctional polymer to carry out three distinct functions based on polyvalent molecular recognition: (i) recognition of the surface of Gram-positive bacteria, (ii) modification of this surface to generate specific binding sites recognized by an antibody, and (iii) promotion of phagocytosis of the opsonized bacteria.

Keywords
Antibacterial agent; Bifunctional polyacrylamide; Specific immunostimulation; Antibody; Macrophage; Flow cytometry
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Publisher
Database: Elsevier - ScienceDirect
Journal: Biomaterials - Volume 27, Issue 19, July 2006, Pages 3663–3674
Authors
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Subjects
Physical Sciences and Engineering Chemical Engineering Bioengineering
Get Full-Text Now
Don't Miss Today's Special Offer
Price was $35.95
You save - $31
Price after discount Only $4.95
100% Money Back Guarantee
Full-text PDF Download
Online Support
Any Questions? feel free to contact us