Calcification as an indicator of osteoinductive capacity of biomaterials in osteoblastic cell cultures
Mineralized extracellular matrix formation is representative for the osteoinductive capacity of biomaterials and is often tested in vitro. Characteristics of in vitro mineralization of primary rat osteoblastic cells (bone marrow, calvaria, periosteum, fetal and adult long bone) and UMR-106 cells were compared by von Kossa staining, FTIR, X-ray diffractometry, TEM and related to parameters of early (ALP and collagen I formation) and late (osteocalcin secretion) osteoblast expression. All cultures expressed high alkaline phosphatase activity and were able to form bone apatite. However, a nodular versus diffuse mineralization pattern was observed. Bone marrow, calvaria and periosteum (early passage) derived cells mineralized restrictively on the three-dimensional area of a nodule. The extracellular matrix consisted of collagen I fibers, among matrix vesicles loaded with needle-like crystals. Long bone, late passage periosteum derived and UMR-106 cells exhibited a diffuse mineralization pattern. Needle-like crystals were observed between the cells but collagen fibers and matrix vesicles could not be detected. Secretion of osteocalcin was detected in cultures derived from bone marrow and absent in UMR-106 and long bone derived cell cultures. The present study demonstrates that dystrophic calcification can not be distinguished from cell-mediated calcification with von Kossa, FTIR and X-ray diffractometry. Primary osteoblastic cells capable of forming nodules are recommended to evaluate the osteoinductive properties of biomaterials.
Journal: Biomaterials - Volume 26, Issue 24, August 2005, Pages 4964–4974