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Real-time 3-D dark-field microscopy for the validation of the cross-linking process of alginate microcapsules

Paper ID Volume ID Publish Year Pages File Format Full-Text
12093 777 2005 8 PDF Available
Title
Real-time 3-D dark-field microscopy for the validation of the cross-linking process of alginate microcapsules
Abstract

Alginate-based microencapsulation is a promising method for long-term maintenance of cellular and membrane function of the cells and tissue fragments required for in vitro and in vivo biosensors, for tissue engineering and particularly for immunoisolation of non-autologous transplants. Microcapsules of high mechanical strength and optimum permeability can be produced by injection of BaCl2 crystals into alginate droplets before they come into contact with external Ba2+. A key requirement is that the system parameters (number of crystals, speed of the crystal stream etc.) are properly adjusted according to the mannuronic and guluronic acid ratio and the average molecular mass of the alginate as well as to the diameter of the microcapsules. Robust, reliable, rapid and low-cost validation tools are, therefore, needed for assurance of the microcapsule quality. Here, we describe a novel three-dimensional (3-D) dark-field microscopy that allows the real-time measurement of the number and spatial distribution of the injected Ba2+ ions throughout the microcapsules after treatment with sulphate. This novel method requires only a conventional microscope equipped with three polarising filters and a double aperture stop. In contrast to confocal laser scanning microscopy images, peripherally attached BaSO4 precipitates can clearly be distinguished from internal ones. The data also demonstrate that several steps of the alginate gelling process must be improved before such immunoisolation can be used in patients.

Keywords
Alginate; Crystal gun method; Cross-linking; Ba2+; Dark-field microscopy
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Real-time 3-D dark-field microscopy for the validation of the cross-linking process of alginate microcapsules
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Publisher
Database: Elsevier - ScienceDirect
Journal: Biomaterials - Volume 26, Issue 32, November 2005, Pages 6386–6393
Authors
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Subjects
Physical Sciences and Engineering Chemical Engineering Bioengineering
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Don't Miss Today's Special Offer
Price was $35.95
You save - $31
Price after discount Only $4.95
100% Money Back Guarantee
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Any Questions? feel free to contact us