Osteoconductive modifications of Ti-implants in a goat defect model: characterization of bone growth with SR μCT and histology
In this work the osteoconductive potential of coatings for titanium implants using different extracellular matrix components was evaluated. Cylindrical implants with two defined cavities A and B were coated with collagen type I, type III, or RGD peptide, and placed in the femur of goats together with an uncoated reference state. Bone contact and volume were determined after 5 and 12 weeks implantation, using both histomorphometry and synchrotron radiation micro computed tomography (SR μCT) as the methods complement each other: SR μCT allows for a high precision of bone detection due to the large number of analysed slices per sample, while histology offers a better lateral resolution and the possibility of additionally determining bone contact.Both methods revealed similar tendencies in bone formation for the differently bio-functionalized implants, with the SR μCT data resulting in significant differences. After 5 and 12 weeks, all three coatings showed a significant increase in bone volume over the uncoated reference, with the highest results for the collagen coatings. The coating consisting of just the RGD-sequence to improve cell adhesion showed only a slight improvement compared with the reference material.For uncoated titanium, RGD, and especially collagen type I, the response in cavity A, situated in denser bone, was stronger than in cavity B. Collagen type III, on the other hand, appeared to be the more effective coating in areas of lesser bone density as represented by cavity B. These results indicate that matrix molecules (or combinations thereof) are capable of generating the appropriate signals for the specific microenvironment around implants and can thus accelerate the bone formation process and increase the stability of implants.
Journal: Biomaterials - Volume 26, Issue 16, June 2005, Pages 3009–3019