Polymers incorporating nitric oxide releasing/generating substances for improved biocompatibility of blood-contacting medical devices
The current state-of-the-art with respect to the preparation, characterization and biomedical applications of novel nitric oxide (NO) releasing or generating polymeric materials is reviewed. Such materials show exceptional promise as coatings to prepare a new generation of medical devices with superior biocompatiblity. Nitric oxide is a well-known inhibitor of platelet adhesion and activation, as well as a potent inhibitor of smooth muscle cell proliferation. Hence, polymers that release or generate NO locally at their surface exhibit greatly enhanced thromboresistivity and have the potential to reduce neointimal hyperplasia caused by device damage to blood vessel walls. In this review, the use of diazeniumdiolates and nitrosothiols as NO donors within a variety polymeric matrixes are summarized. Such species can either be doped as discrete NO donors within polymeric films, or covalently linked to polymer backbones and/or inorganic polymeric filler particles that are often employed to enhance the strength of biomedical polymers (e.g., fumed silica or titanium dioxide). In addition, very recent efforts to create catalytic polymers possessing immobilized Cu(II) sites capable of generating NO from endogenous oxidized forms of NO already present in blood and other physiological fluids (nitrite and nitrosothiols) are discussed. Preliminary literature data illustrating the efficacy of the various NO release/generating polymers as coatings for intravascular sensors, extracorporeal blood loop circuits, and arteriovenous grafts/shunts are reviewed.
Journal: Biomaterials - Volume 26, Issue 14, May 2005, Pages 1685–1693