Effective use of optimized, high-dose (50 kGy) gamma irradiation for pathogen inactivation of human bone allografts
The safety of tissue allografts has come under increased scrutiny due to recent reports of allograft-associated bacterial and viral infections in tissue recipients. We report that 50 kGy of gamma irradiation, nearly three times the dose currently used, is an effective pathogen inactivation method when used under optimized conditions that minimize damage to the tissue. Cancellous bone dowels treated with a radioprotectant solution and 50 kGy of optimized irradiation had an ultimate compressive strength and modulus of elasticity equal to conventionally irradiated (18 kGy) and non-irradiated control bone grafts. We subjected bone dowels treated with this pathogen inactivation method to an in vitro cytotoxicity test using three different mammalian cell lines and concluded that the treated grafts were not cytotoxic. The log reduction of nine pathogens spiked into radioprotectant-treated bone irradiated to 50 kGy was also tested. We achieved 4.9 logs of inactivation of a model virus for HIV and hepatitis C and 5 logs inactivation of a model virus for human parvovirus B-19. Complete inactivation (6.0–9.2 logs) of seven clinically relevant microorganisms was demonstrated. The results show that a combination of radioprotectants and optimized, high-dose gamma irradiation is a viable method for producing safer cancellous bone grafts that have the mechanical strength of existing grafts.
Journal: Biomaterials - Volume 26, Issue 14, May 2005, Pages 2033–2042