Thermal and chemical modification of titanium–aluminum–vanadium implant materials: effects on surface properties, glycoprotein adsorption, and MG63 cell attachment
The microstructure, chemical composition and wettability of thermally and chemically modified Ti–6Al–4 V alloy disks were characterized and correlated with the degree of radiolabeled fibronectin-alloy surface adsorption and subsequent adhesion of osteoblast-like cells. Heating either in pure oxygen or atmosphere (atm) resulted in an enrichment of Al and V within the surface oxide. Heating (oxygen/atm) and peroxide treatment both followed by butanol treatment resulted in a reduction in content of V, but not in Al. Heating (oxygen/atm) or peroxide treatment resulted in a thicker oxide layer and a more hydrophilic surface when compared with passivated controls. Post-treatment with butanol, however, resulted in less hydrophilic surfaces than heating or peroxide treatment alone. The greatest increases in the adsorption of radiolabeled fibronectin following treatment were observed with peroxide/butanol-treated samples followed by peroxide/butanol and heat/butanol, although binding was only increased by 20-40% compared to untreated controls. These experiments with radiolabeled fibronectin indicate that enhanced adorption of the glycoprotein was more highly correlated with changes in chemical composition, reflected in a reduction in V content and decrease in the V/Al ratio, than with changes in wettability. Despite promoting only a modest elevation in fibronectin adsorption, the treatment of disks with heat or heat/butanol induced a several-fold increase in the attachment of MG63 cells promoted by a nonadhesive concentration of fibronectin that was used to coat the pretreated disks compared to uncoated disks. Therefore, results obtained with these modifications of surface properties indicate that an increase in the absolute content of Al and/or V (heat), and/or in the Al/V ratio (with little change in hydrophilicity; heat+butanol) is correlated with an increase in the fibronectin-promoted adhesion of an osteoblast-like cell line. It would also appear that the thermal treatment-induced enhancement of cell adhesion in the presence of this integrin-binding protein is due to its increased biological activity, rather than a mass effect alone, that appear to be associated with changes in chemical composition of the metallic surface. Future studies will investigate the influence of the surface chemical composition of various implantable alloys on protein adsorption and receptor-mediated cell adhesion. In addition, by altering the properties of bound osteogenic protein enhancing exposure to cell integrin binding domains, it may be possible to develop implant surfaces which enhance the attachment, adhesion and developmental response of osteoblast precursors leading to accelerated osseointegration.
Journal: Biomaterials - Volume 25, Issue 16, July 2004, Pages 3135–3146