Osteophilic properties of bone implant surface modifications in a cassette model on a decorticated goat spinal transverse process
This study comparatively evaluated the osteophilic capacity of 17 different surface modifications (i.e. fourteen different chemical modifications via ceramic coatings and three different physical modifications via surface roughness) for titanium (Ti) surfaces. All surface modifications were subjected to physico-chemical analyses and immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) for coating stability assessment. Subsequently, a bone conduction chamber cassette model on the goat transverse process was used for comparative in vivo analysis based on bone responses to these different surface modifications after twelve weeks. Histological and histomorphometrical analyses in terms of longitudinal bone-to-implant contact percentage (BIC%), relative bone area (BA%) were investigated within each individual channel and maximum bone height (BH). Characterization of the surface modifications showed significant differences in surface chemistry and surface roughness among the surface modifications. Generally, immersion of the coatings in SBF showed net uptake of calcium by thick coatings (>50 μm; plasma-sprayed and biomimetic coatings) and no fluctuations in the SBF for thin coatings (<50 μm). The histomorphometrical data set demonstrated that only plasma-sprayed CaP coatings performed superiorly regarding BIC%, BA% and BH compared to un-coated surfaces, irrespective of surface roughness of the latter. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the deposition of plasma-sprayed CaP coating with high roughness significantly improves the osteophilic capacity of titanium surfaces in a chamber cassette model.Statement of SignificanceFor the bone implant market, a large number of surface modifications are available on different types of (dental and orthopedic) bone implants. As the implant surface provides the interface at which the biomaterial interacts with the surrounding (bone) tissue, it is of utmost importance to know what surface modification has optimal osteophilic properties. In contrast to numerous earlier studies on bone implant surface modifications with limited number of comparison surfaces, the manuscript by van Oirschot et al. describes the data of in vivo experiments using a large animal model that allows for direct and simultaneous comparison of a large variety of surface modifications, which included both commercially available and experimental surface modifications for bone implants. These data clearly show the superiority of plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings regarding bone-to-implant contact, bone amount, and bone height.
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Journal: Acta Biomaterialia - Volume 37, June 2016, Pages 195–205