Interaction of various pectin formulations with porcine colonic tissues ☆
Pectins of low and high degrees of esterification, as well as pectin derivatives carrying primary amines, were investigate for gel forming ability with mucosal tissues. The combination of scanning electronic microscopy and small deformation dynamic mechanical studies revealed that pectins with higher net electrical charges are more bioadhesive than the less charged ones. Both the negatively charged pectin formulation, P-25, and the positively charged formulation, P-N, were able to synergize with the mucus to produce rheologically strengthened gels. The highly esterified pectin, P-94, also synergized with the mucosal glycoproteins to form a gel structure via coil entanglements. The ex vivo studies further confirmed the microstructures of mucus gel networks with adsorbed pectins. When incubated with porcine intestinal mucus membrane, P-94 gels were found generally bound to the lumen area, P-25 gels were able to penetrate deeply near the wall area, P-N gels interacted with mucins via electrostatic bonding and dispersed into the whole area from the lumen to the wall. Hence, both P-N and P-94, by enhancing the protective barrier properties of mucus systems, may be useful alternatives for the treatment of mucus related irritation and infection. In drug-delivery systems, P-N and P-25 would deliver incorporated drugs mainly by pectin dissolution, while a diffusion mechanism would release drugs from P-94 gels.
Journal: Biomaterials - Volume 26, Issue 29, October 2005, Pages 5907–5916