TEM study of calcium phosphate precipitation on HA/TCP ceramics
This study focuses on phase identification of precipitation on bioactive calcium phosphate (BCP) surfaces in vitro and in vivo. The BCP used in this study consisted of 70 wt% hydroxyapatite (HA) and 30 wt% β-tricalcium phosphate. Single crystalline precipitates of calcium phosphates on porous BCP bioceramics obtained after immersion in dynamic simulated body fluid (SBF) and after implantation in pig muscle were examined using electron diffraction in transmission electron microscope. The crystals formed in vitro in dynamic SBF were identified as octacalcium phosphate (OCP), instead of apatite. Most of the precipitated crystals in vivo samples had an HA structure; while OCP and dicalcium phosphate dihydrate were also identified. The evidence from single diffraction patterns indicates that apatite formation on bioactive ceramics is a complicated process, particularly in physiological environments where formation might include a transient stage of intermediate phases.
Journal: Biomaterials - Volume 24, Issue 13, June 2003, Pages 2125–2131