Surface modification of a segmented polyetherurethane using a low-powered gas plasma and its influence on the activation of the coagulation system
A medical grade segmented polyetherurethane (PEU) was treated with a low-powered gas plasma using O2, Ar, N2 and NH3 as the treatment gases. Changes in the surface functional group chemistry were studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The wettability of the surfaces was examined using dynamic contact angle measurements and the surface morphology was evaluated using atomic force microscopy. The influence of the surface modification to the polyurethane on the blood response to the polyetherurethane was investigated by measuring changes in the activation of the contact phase activation of the intrinsic coagulation cascade. The data demonstrate that the plasma treatment process caused surface modifications to the PEU that in all cases increased the polar nature of the surfaces. O2 and Ar plasmas resulted in the incorporation of oxygen-containing groups that remained present following storage in an aqueous environment. N2 and NH3 plasmas resulted in the incorporation of nitrogen-containing groups but these were replaced with oxygen-containing groups following storage in the aqueous environment. In all plasma treatments there was a lowering of contact phase activation compared to the untreated surface, the N2 and NH3 treatments dramatically so.
Journal: Biomaterials - Volume 24, Issue 28, December 2003, Pages 5069–5081