Role of surface charge and wettability on early stage mineralization and bone cell–materials interactions of polarized hydroxyapatite
Our objective was to determine the role of surface charge and wettability on early stage mineralization as well as bone cell adhesion and proliferation on polarized HAp surface. To estimate the surface wettability, contact angles were measured in water, simulated body fluid (SBF) and Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium/nutrient mixture F-12 Ham (DMEM). Experimental results show that HAp surface wettability and surface energy can be tailored by inducing surface charge without introducing any volumetric effects in the material. Increasing the surface charge increased the wettability and also the energy of HAp surfaces in all tested media. A maximum surface energy of 49.47 ± 3.76 mJ/m2 was estimated for positively charged HAp surfaces polarized at 400 oC. The in vitro bioactivity of polarized HAp samples was evaluated by soaking in SBF and DMEM (cell media). Cell–materials interaction was studied by culturing with human fetal osteoblast cells (hFOB). In vitro results show that tailoring the combined effect of wettability and charge polarity on the HAp surface enable differential binding of inorganic ions (e.g., Ca2+, Cl−, Na+, HCO3− etc) and organic cell adhesive proteins (e.g., fibronectin, vitronectin etc) with different surface properties, which results in accelerated or decelerated mineralization as well as cell adhesion and proliferation on polarized HAp surface.
Journal: Acta Biomaterialia - Volume 5, Issue 6, July 2009, Pages 2178–2188