Biological reaction to alumina, zirconia, titanium and polyethylene particles implanted onto murine calvaria
Periprosthetic osteolysis is a serious problem that limits long-term survival of total hip arthroplasty. Ceramics have been introduced as a joint surface material to reduce osteolysis due to wear particles. The aim of this study is to investigate the biological reaction of ceramic particles on murine calvarial bone, in comparison with polyethylene and titanium particles. Sixty CL/BL6 mice were divided into five groups according to the materials implanted onto the murine calvariae: control, Al2O3, ZrO2, high-density polyethylene (HDP) and Ti6Al4V. One week after the implantation, each calvarial tissue was dissected and the release of proinflammatory mediators (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α) and bone resorption were assessed. The particles of HDP and Ti6Al4V induced three and two times larger osteolytic lesions than the control, respectively. The levels of IL-1β and IL-6 were significantly elevated in the medium subcultured with the calvariae of HDP and Ti6Al4V groups. Any particle type did not increase the levels of TNF-α. There were no significant differences observed in the levels of proinflammatory mediators or osteolytic area among Al2O3, ZrO2 and control groups. The inflammatory response and bone resorption induced by ceramic particles were much smaller than those induced by HDP and Ti6Al4V. These biological features suggest the biocompatibility of ceramics as a joint surface material for artificial joints.
Journal: Biomaterials - Volume 24, Issue 21, September 2003, Pages 3655–3661