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The ultrastructure of tomatine adjuvant

Paper ID Volume ID Publish Year Pages File Format Full-Text
13102 829 2002 10 PDF Available
Title
The ultrastructure of tomatine adjuvant
Abstract

The tomatine adjuvant, consisting of tomatine, n-octyl-β-d-glucopyranoside, phosphatidylethanolamine, cholesterol, and ovalbumin, has recently been shown to potentiate the immunogenicity of protein antigen and elicit cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses in immunized animals. The physicochemical properties of tomatine adjuvant have not been characterized. The aim of this study was to examine the microstructure of this complex formulation, as directly related to its physicochemical properties. To elucidate the micromorphology of this system, the tomatine adjuvant was separated by isopycnic ultracentrifugation, followed by freeze fracturing and examination by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The adjuvant mixture was shown to be composed of several micro- and nano-structures. The major fraction obtained from isopycnic separation was shown to consist of flaky needle-like microcrystals, approximately 80–160 nm in width and 2–4 μm in length. The tomatine crystals alone in 0.9% NaCl, on the other hand, were shown to be elongated hollow tubular crystals of hundreds of nanometers up to a few microns in length, along which n-octyl-β-glucopyranoside was speculated to serve as a seeding microtemplate for gel crystallization of protein complexes. Indented marks within the gel phase were observed in the freeze fractured replicas of the adjuvant, suggesting that protein complexes may have been crystallized or precipitated within the gels. Several other forms of micro- and nano-structures were also observed, showing multiple-dispersion features with gel characteristics. The presence of gel crystalline and multiple-dispersed phases is postulated to contribute to the sustained immunopotentiation effect of tomatine adjuvant.

Keywords
CMC, Critical micelle concentration; OGP, n-octyl-β-d-glucopyranoside; OVA, Ovalbumin; PE, Phosphatidylenthanolamine; RI, Refractive index; SEM, Scanning electron microscopy; TOM, Tomatine; TEM, Transmission electron microscopyAdjuvant; Freeze fracture; I
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The ultrastructure of tomatine adjuvant
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Publisher
Database: Elsevier - ScienceDirect
Journal: Biomaterials - Volume 23, Issue 23, December 2002, Pages 4677–4686
Authors
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Subjects
Physical Sciences and Engineering Chemical Engineering Bioengineering
Get Full-Text Now
Don't Miss Today's Special Offer
Price was $35.95
You save - $31
Price after discount Only $4.95
100% Money Back Guarantee
Full-text PDF Download
Online Support
Any Questions? feel free to contact us