Porous titanium and silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite biomodification prepared by a biomimetic process: Characterization and in vivo evaluation
Porous titanium with a pore size of 150–600 μm and a porosity of 67% was prepared by fiber sintering. The porous titanium had a complete three-dimensional (3D) interconnected structure and a high yield strength of 100 MPa. Si-substituted hydroxyapatite (Si-HA) was coated on the surface by a biomimetic process to improve the surface bioactivity. X-ray diffraction results showed that Si-HA coating was not well crystallized. New bone tissue was found in the uncoated porous titanium after 2 weeks of implantation and a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the bone ingrowth rate (BIR) was found after 4 weeks of implantation, indicating the good osteoconductivity of the porous structure. The HA-coated and Si-HA-coated porous titanium exhibited a significantly higher BIR than the uncoated titanium at all intervals, highlighting the better surface bioactivity and osteoconductivity of the HA- and Si-HA coatings. Also, the Si-HA-coated porous titanium demonstrated a significantly higher BIR than the HA-coated porous titanium, showing that silicon plays an active role in the surface bioactivity. For Si-HA-coated porous titanium, up to 90% pore area was covered by new bone tissue after 4 weeks of implantation in cortical bone. In the bone marrow cavity, the pore spaces were filled with bone marrow, displaying that the interconnected pore structure could provide a channel for body fluid. It was concluded that both the 3D interconnected pore structure and the Si-HA coating contributed to the high BIR.
Journal: Acta Biomaterialia - Volume 5, Issue 5, June 2009, Pages 1732–1741