The attachment and growth behavior of osteoblast-like cells on microtextured surfaces
In previous studies, we showed that the application of microgrooves on a surface can direct cellular morphology and the deposition of mineralized matrix of osteoblast-like cells (Biomaterials 20 (1999) 1293; Clin. Oral Impl Res. 11 (2000) 325). In this study, we evaluated the attachment and growth behavior of these cells, using scanning- and transmission electron microscopy (SEM/TEM). Smooth and microgrooved polystyrene substrates were made (groove depth 0.5–1.5 μm, groove- and ridge width 1–10 μm). On these substrates, osteoblast-like cells were cultured for periods up to 16 days. SEM showed that the cells, and their extensions, closely followed the surface on smooth and wider grooved (>5 μm) substrates. In contrast, narrow grooves (<2 μm) were bridged. After 16 days of incubation, the matrix showed extensive deposition of collagen fibrils, and the formation of calcified nodules. With TEM it was shown that on the smooth and wider grooved substrates, focal adhesions were spread throughout the surface. However, on narrow grooves focal adhesions were always positioned on the edges of surface ridges only. Apparently, most extracellular matrix (ECM) was produced by the cells that directly adhered to the substrate. Deposition of ECM was seen in the surface grooves, as well as in between the cell layers. On basis of the current study and previous experiments, we conclude that microgrooves are able to influence bone cell behavior by (1) determining the alignment of cells and cellular extensions, (2) altering the formation and placement of cell focal adhesions, and (3) altering ECM production. Therefore, microgrooved surfaces seem interesting to be applied on bone-anchored implants.
Journal: Biomaterials - Volume 24, Issue 16, July 2003, Pages 2711–2719