A study on grafting and characterization of HMDI-modified calcium hydrogenphosphate
It is known that the organic molecules can provide an effective means to manipulate the surface properties of the biodegradable ceramic. There are two ways to modify the surface of the biodegradable ceramic by organic molecules. The first one is through surface adsorption but organic molecules will easily be washed out in the physiological environment. The second approach is to graft organic molecules through covalent bond to the hydroxyl groups that are available on the surface of the ceramics. Isocyanate group has been reported as a coupling agent for hydroxyapatite and organic molecule. The studies showed that the isocyanate could react with hydroxyl groups of hydroxyapatite and form a covalent bond between isocyanate and hydroxyapatite. In the study, hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDI) was used as coupling agent and calcium hydrogenphosphate (CaHPO4, CHP) was the candidate ceramic. CHP will react with HMDI at the temperature of 20°C, 30°C, 40°C, 50°C, 60°C, and 70°C for 4 h. Dibutyltin dilaurate and hydroquinone were used as catalyst and inhibitor, respectively. The effect of reaction temperature on the grafted yield will be described. The linkage between CHP and HMDI will be characterized by DTA, TGA, FTIR, XRD, and 31P, 13C liquid state NMR. From the results, we successfully modified the surface of CHP with coupling agent of HMDI. The grafted yield of HMDI on CHP was increasing with the reaction temperature. The best temperature for CHP modified by HMDI is around 50°C. The linkage between HMDI and the surface of CHP is a urethane linkage as CHPOCONH(CH2)6NCO. After further treatment, the terminal group of CHP treated with HMDI (MCHP) will be converted into a primary amine group as the formula of CHPOCONH(CH2)6NH2. If reaction temperature is 60°C, long extension chain will occur with a urea linkage between the isocyanate groups as the formula of CHPOCONH(CH2)6(NHCONH(CH2)6)nNH2. At reaction temperature higher than 60°C, the HMDI will become prepolymerized forms in solution. The prepolymerized forms such as allophanate, biuret, uretidione and urea linkage will turn the solution into gel type mixture, which will lead to low grafted yield of HMDI on CHP. When MCHP prepared at the temperature 20°C, there is no evidence of long extension but the grafted yield is the lowest only 0.9 wt% around.
Journal: Biomaterials - Volume 22, Issue 23, December 2001, Pages 3179–3189