Human articular chondrocyte adhesion and proliferation on synthetic biodegradable polymer films
The effect of polymer chemistry on adhesion, proliferation, and morphology of human articular cartilage (HAC) chondrocytes was evaluated on synthetic degradable polymer films and tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) as a control. Two-dimensional surfaces of poly(glycolide) (PGA), poly(l-lactide) (l-PLA), poly(d,l-lactide) (d,l-PLA), 85:15 poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (d,l-PLGA), poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), 90:10 (d,l-lactide-co-caprolactone) (d,l-PLCL), 9:91 d,l-PLCL, 40:60 l-PLCL, 67:33 poly(glycolide-co-trimethylene carbonate) (PGTMC), and poly(dioxanone) (PDO) were made by spin-casting into uniform thin films. Adhesion kinetics were studied using TCPS and PCL films and revealed that the rate of chondrocyte adhesion began to level off after 6 h. Degree of HAC chondrocyte adhesion was studied on all the substrates after 8 h, and ranged from 47 to 145% of the attachment found on TCPS. The greatest number of chondrocytes attached to PGA and 67:33 PGTMC polymer films, and attachment to PCL and l-PLA films was statistically lower than that found on PGA (p<0.05). There was no correlation between amount of chondrocyte attachment to the substrates and the substrates’ water contact angle. Chondrocytes proliferated equally well on all the substrates resulting in equivalent cell numbers on all the substrates at both day 4 and day 7 of the culture. However, these total cell numbers were reached as a result of a 88- and 42-fold expansion on PDO and PLA, respectively, which was significantly higher than the 11-fold expansion found on TCPS (p<0.05). The greater fold expansion of the cells on PDO and l-PLA films may be attributed to the availability of space for cells to grow, since their numbers at the start of culture were fewer following the 8 h attachment period. This suggests that regardless of initial seeding density on these degradable polymer substrates (i.e., if some minimum number of cells are able to attach), they will eventually populate the surfaces of all these polymers given sufficient space and time.
Journal: Biomaterials - Volume 20, Issues 23–24, December 1999, Pages 2245–2256