Encapsulated verses hand-mixed zinc phosphate dental cement
Zinc phosphate cements are commonly supplied as two components, powder and liquid, and the proportions of the constituents are determined by operator experience. A capsulated system which is mechanically mixed has been marketed and this study investigated the performance of the encapsulated cement system. The mean fracture strength, standard deviation and associated Weibull Moduli (m) of encapsulated cements were determined by compressive fracturing 20 cement specimens filled directly from the mixing syringe or from narrower cement tubes. Pore distribution within the cylindrical specimens was determined using image analysis to assess the influence of the method of mould filling with the cement. The strength data showed variation in magnitude and consistency ranging from 44.6±13.7 MPa (m=3.18±0.71) for cements filled directly from the syringe to 61.0±7.8 MPa (m=8.35±1.87) for cements filled from cement tubes. Larger pores were found in specimens consolidated directly from the cement syringe. Mechanical mixing of the encapsulated cement resulted in air entrapment in the cement mix which manifested itself as large pores (over 200 μm diameter) within the cylindrical specimens. The smaller orifice of the cement tube compared with the syringe was considered to be responsible for eliminating the majority of the air entrapped in the cement mass during mixing. Whilst mechanical mixing of encapsulated cements is quicker and more convenient, the encapsulated specimens consolidated according to the manufacturers instructions from the syringe offered no significant advantage in terms of reliability or strength over hand-mixed cements in this investigation.
Journal: Biomaterials - Volume 20, Issue 22, November 1999, Pages 2147–2153