Tissue culture surface characteristics influence the expansion of human bone marrow cells
Human cell therapy applications in tissue engineering, such as the ex vivo production of hematopoietic cells for transplantation, have recently entered the clinic. Although considerable effort has been focused on the development of biological processes to generate therapeutic cells, little has been published on the design and manufacture of devices for implementation of these processes in a robust and reproducible fashion at a clinical scale. In this study, the effect of tissue culture surface chemistry and texture was assessed in human bone marrow (BM) mononuclear cell (MNC) and CD34-enriched cell cultures. Growth and differentiation was assessed by total, progenitor (CFU-GM), stromal (CFU-F), and primitive (LTC-IC) cell output. Tissue culture treated (TCT) plastic significantly increased MNC culture output as compared with non-TCT plastic, whereas CD34-enriched cell cultures gave lower output (than MNC cultures) that was unaffected by TCT plastic. Interestingly, the level of MNC culture output was significantly different on four commercial TCT surfaces, with the best performing surface giving output that was 1.6- to 2.8-fold greater than the worst one. The surface giving the highest output was the best at supporting development of a distinct morphological feature in the adherent layer (i.e. cobblestone area) indicative of primitive cells, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to characterize this surface. For custom injection molding of culture devices, the use of three different resins resulted in MNC culture output that was equivalent to commercial cultureware controls, whereas CD34-enriched cell cultures were highly sensitive to resins containing additives. When the texture of molded parts was roughened by sandblasting of the tool, MNC culture output was significantly reduced and higher spikes of IL-6 and G-CSF production were observed, presumably due to macrophage activation. In conclusion, the manufacture of BM MNC culture devices for clinical applications was optimized by consideration of plastic resin, surface treatment, and texture of the culture substratum. Although CD34-enriched cells were insensitive to surface treatment, they were considerably more sensitive to biocompatibility issues related to resin selection. The development of robust systems for BM MNC expansion will enable clinical trials designed to test the safety and efficacy of cells produced in this novel tissue engineering application.
Journal: Biomaterials - Volume 19, Issue 21, November 1998, Pages 1963-1972