Osteogenesis in extraskeletally implanted porous calcium phosphate ceramics: variability among different kinds of animals
Synthetic porous calcium phosphate ceramics (HA/TCP) were implanted intramuscularly and subcutaneously in dogs, pigs, goats, rabbits and rats, designed to make a comparative study of the host tissue responses to porous HA/TCP ceramics in different kinds of animals. Specimens were harvested at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 days after implantation. Decalcified and undecalcified sections were made and examined by light microscopy. Obvious bone formation could be detected in some specimens harvested from dogs and pigs after 45 days intramuscular implantation or after 60 days subcutaneous implantation. At days 90 and 120, an extensive amount of bone formed in all specimens implanted in dogs and pigs. However, no histologically detectable bone formation was observed in any specimen implanted intramuscularly and subcutaneously in goats, rabbits and rats until 120 days. It is demonstrated from this finding that the synthetic porous calcium phosphate ceramics are capable of inducing osteogenesis when implanted in non-bony sites, but this ability varies between different kinds of animals. Earlier periods of observation in specimens harvested from dogs showed that bone differentiation in the pore regions of the ceramics follows a complex process involving invasion of the fibrovascular connective tissues at day 15, appearance of polymorphic mesenchymal cells near the invading vasculature and at the interface with the ceramics at day 30, differentiation of osteoblasts and formation of bone matrix in direct contact with the surface of the ceramics at day 45, and finally remodelling of the fibrous connective tissue into an extensive amount of bone at days 60, 90 and 120.
Journal: Biomaterials - Volume 17, Issue 22, November 1996, Pages 2131-2137