Biodegradation of synthetic biphasic calcium phosphate by human monocytes in vitro: a morphological study
Biodegradation processes (both intra- and extracellular) occur immediately after implantation of calcium phosphate (CaP) ceramics. Monocytes and macrophages, among the first cells to appear in wound healing, are largely implicated in phagocytosis and may be involved in CaP degradation because of their sensitivity to secreted cytokines. We tested the behaviour of human monocytes placed on the surface of hydroxyapatite (HA) and biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) tablets in the presence of vitamin D3 (VD3) and Interferon gamma (INFγ). After short-term culture (6 days), morphological events were observed in histological and scanning electron microscopy studies, and degradation lacunae were characterized. There were cell prints but no pits on the HA surface, but pits appeared near cells on the BCP surface. Preincubation of biomaterial in culture medium was essential. Variations in cell morphology were observed in different culture types. In the presence of VD3, degradation was greater than in the control, and cells were more polarized and rounded. With INFγ, cells were extensively spread out on the sample surface, and the biomaterial seemed to be extracted from the surface by cells. Thus, monocytes are clearly influenced by soluble factors (vitamins, cytokines) and could be key cells in initiating the degradation of biomaterial.
Journal: Biomaterials - Volume 17, Issue 22, November 1996, Pages 2173-2178