Competitive protein adsorption on micro patterned polymeric biomaterials, and viscoelastic properties of tailor made extracellular matrices
Cell adhesion on biomaterial surfaces and the vitality of anchorage dependent cells is affected by several parameters of an adsorbate layer which is intentionally or spontaneously formed. Surface pre-treatments and several conditioning steps prior and during to the cell/biomaterial contact affect the composition, orientation, quantity and viscoelasticity of the interfacing layer between cells and biomaterial. This work was performed to elucidate the response of cells on two modified biomaterial surfaces based on protein or carbohydrate adsorbates:(a)Masked UV irradiations opened a simple route to obtain chemically patterned substrates controlling serum protein adsorption and cell adhesion. It is possible to achieve structures of subcellular size and to produce immobilized gradients. In order to examine the protein matrix deposited on these substrates we applied a quartz microbalance technique (QCM-D) capable to extract viscoelastic data in addition to the mass uptake during plasma protein deposition. It was found that the quantity and viscosity of surface bound albumin is lowered when the surface is modified (patterned) by UV exposure. Hence, the UV modification promotes the competitive adsorption of cell adhesion proteins from the media or upon secretion by the cells and yields to the observed cell patterns.(b)Another tissue engineering technique, using immobilized, modified and/or cross linked hyaluronic acid (HA), an important extra cellular matrix component in vivo, is also examined by QCM-D. Our data demonstrate that HA can be modified by an activation with a carbodiimide, followed by the application of an α,ω-bisamino polyethyleneglycol. The QCM-D data can be interpreted as a stiffening of the HA layer combined with the release of hydration water. Further, the hydration state and the viscoelastic behaviour of surface bound ultrathin HA hydrogels was examined.Quantification of viscoelastic parameters of thin films of ECM by QCM-D is valuable for the interpretation of durotaxis, describing effects of mechanical substrate parameters on the adhesion and motility of cells.
Journal: Biomolecular Engineering - Volume 24, Issue 1, February 2007, Pages 87–91