Bioremediation of wastewaters with recalcitrant organic compounds and metals by aerobic granules
Compared to activated sludge flocs, aerobic granules have a regular shape, and a compact and dense structure which enhances settleability, higher biomass retention, multi-microbial functions, higher tolerance to toxicity, greater tolerance to shock loading, and relatively low excess sludge production. The potential for improved process efficiency and cost-effectiveness can be attractive when it is applied to both municipal and industrial wastewaters. This review discusses potential applications of aerobic granulation technology in wastewater treatment while drawing attention to relevant findings such as diffusion gradients existing in aerobic granules which help the biomass cope with inhibitory compounds and the ability of granules to continue degradation of inhibitory compounds at extreme acid and alkaline pHs.
Journal: Biotechnology Advances - Volume 29, Issue 1, January–February 2011, Pages 111–123