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Woody biomass: Niche position as a source of sustainable renewable chemicals and energy and kinetics of hot-water extraction/hydrolysis

Paper ID Volume ID Publish Year Pages File Format Full-Text
14394 1216 2010 20 PDF Available
Title
Woody biomass: Niche position as a source of sustainable renewable chemicals and energy and kinetics of hot-water extraction/hydrolysis
Abstract

The conversion of biomass to chemicals and energy is imperative to sustaining our way of life as known to us today. Fossil chemical and energy sources are traditionally regarded as wastes from a distant past. Petroleum, natural gas, and coal are not being regenerated in a sustainable manner. However, biomass sources such as algae, grasses, bushes and forests are continuously being replenished. Woody biomass represents the most abundant and available biomass source. Woody biomass is a reliably sustainable source of chemicals and energy that could be replenished at a rate consistent with our needs. The biorefinery is a concept describing the collection of processes used to convert biomass to chemicals and energy. Woody biomass presents more challenges than cereal grains for conversion to platform chemicals due to its stereochemical structures. Woody biomass can be thought of as comprised of at least four components: extractives, hemicellulose, lignin and cellulose. Each of these four components has a different degree of resistance to chemical, thermal and biological degradation. The biorefinery concept proposed at ESF (State University of New York — College of Environmental Science and Forestry) aims at incremental sequential deconstruction, fractionation/conversion of woody biomass to achieve efficient separation of major components. The emphasis of this work is on the kinetics of hot-water extraction, filling the gap in the fundamental understanding, linking engineering developments, and completing the first step in the biorefinery processes. This first step removes extractives and hemicellulose fractions from woody biomass. While extractives and hemicellulose are largely removed in the extraction liquor, cellulose and lignin largely remain in the residual woody structure. Xylo-oligomers and acetic acid in the extract are the major components having the greatest potential value for development. Extraction/hydrolysis involves at least 16 general reactions that could be divided into four categories: adsorption of proton onto woody biomass, hydrolysis reactions on the woody biomass surface, dissolution of soluble substances into the extraction liquor, and hydrolysis and dehydration decomposition in the extraction liquor. The extraction/hydrolysis rates are significantly simplified when the reactivity of all the intermonomer bonds are regarded as identical within each macromolecule, and the overall reactivity are identical for all the extractable macromolecules on the surface. A pseudo-first order extraction rate expression has been derived based on concentrations in monomer units. The reaction rate constant is however lower at the beginning of the extraction than that towards the end of the extraction. Furthermore, the H-factor and/or severity factor can be applied to lump the effects of temperature and residence time on the extraction process, at least for short times. This provides a means to control and optimize the performance of the extraction process effectively.

Keywords
Biorefinery; Biomass; Hot-water extraction; Kinetics; Renewable; Surface reaction; Woody biomass
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Publisher
Database: Elsevier - ScienceDirect
Journal: Biotechnology Advances - Volume 28, Issue 5, September–October 2010, Pages 563–582
Authors
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Subjects
Physical Sciences and Engineering Chemical Engineering Bioengineering
Get Full-Text Now
Don't Miss Today's Special Offer
Price was $35.95
You save - $31
Price after discount Only $4.95
100% Money Back Guarantee
Full-text PDF Download
Online Support
Any Questions? feel free to contact us