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Targeting reactive astrogliosis by novel biotechnological strategies

Paper ID Volume ID Publish Year Pages File Format Full-Text
14601 1232 2012 11 PDF Available
Title
Targeting reactive astrogliosis by novel biotechnological strategies
Abstract

Neuroglial cells are fundamental for control of brain homeostasis and synaptic plasticity. Decades of pathological and physiological studies have focused on neurons in neurodegenerative disorders, but it is becoming increasingly evident that glial cells play an irreplaceable part in brain homeostasis and synaptic plasticity. Animal models of brain injury and neurodegenerative diseases have largely contributed to current understanding of astrocyte-specific mechanisms participating in brain function and neurodegeneration. Specifically, gliotransmission (presence of glial neurotransmitters, and their receptors and active transporters), trophic support (release, maturation and degradation of neurotrophins) and metabolism (production of lactate and GSH components) are relevant aspects of astrocyte function in neuronal metabolism, synaptic plasticity and neuroprotection. Morpho-functional changes of astrocytes and microglial cells after traumatic or toxic insults to the central nervous system (namely, reactive gliosis) disrupt the complex neuro-glial networks underlying homeostasis and connectivity within brain circuits. Thus, neurodegenerative diseases might be primarily regarded as gliodegenerative processes, in which profound alterations of glial activation have a clear impact on progression and outcomes of neuropathological processes. This review provides an overview of current knowledge of astrocyte functions in the brain and how targeting glial-specific pathways might ultimately impact the development of therapies for clinical management of neurodegenerative disorders.

Keywords
CNS, Central Nervous System; GFAP, Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; EAAT1, excitatory amino acid transporter 1; GLAST, glutamate-aspartate transporter; GLT, glutamate transporter; GSH, glutathione; i.t., intrathecal; NGF, Nerve Growth Factor; BB14®, Nerve
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Targeting reactive astrogliosis by novel biotechnological strategies
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Publisher
Database: Elsevier - ScienceDirect
Journal: Biotechnology Advances - Volume 30, Issue 1, January–February 2012, Pages 261–271
Authors
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Subjects
Physical Sciences and Engineering Chemical Engineering Bioengineering
Get Full-Text Now
Don't Miss Today's Special Offer
Price was $35.95
You save - $31
Price after discount Only $4.95
100% Money Back Guarantee
Full-text PDF Download
Online Support
Any Questions? feel free to contact us