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Role of biotechnological interventions in the improvement of castor (Ricinus communis L.) and Jatropha curcas L.

Paper ID Volume ID Publish Year Pages File Format Full-Text
14776 1247 2008 12 PDF Available
Title
Role of biotechnological interventions in the improvement of castor (Ricinus communis L.) and Jatropha curcas L.
Abstract

Castor and Jatropha belong to the Euphorbiaceae family. This review highlights the role of biotechnological tools in the genetic improvement of castor and jatropha. Castor is monotypic and breeding programmes have mostly relied on the variability available in the primary gene pool. The major constraints limiting profitable cultivation are: vulnerability to insect pests and diseases, and the press cake is toxic which restrict its use as cattle feed. Conventional breeding techniques have limited scope in improvement of resistance to biotic stresses and in quality improvement owing to low genetic variability for these traits. Genetic diversity was assessed using protein based markers while use of molecular markers is at infancy. In vitro studies in castor have been successful in shoot proliferation from meristematic explants, but not callus-mediated regeneration. Genetic transformation experiments have been initiated for development of insect resistant and ricin-free transgenics with very low transformation frequency. In tropical and subtropical countries jatropha is viewed as a potential biofuel crop. The limitations in available germplasm include; lack of knowledge of the genetic base, poor yields, low genetic diversity and vulnerability to a wide array of insects and diseases. Great scope exists for genetic improvement through conventional methods, induced mutations, interspecific hybridization and genetic transformation. Reliable and highly efficient tissue culture protocols for direct and callus-mediated shoot regeneration and somatic embryogenesis are established for jatropha which indicates potential for widening the genetic base through biotechnological tools. Assessment of genetic diversity using molecular markers disclosed low interaccessional variability in local Jatropha curcas germplasm. The current status and future prospects of in vitro regeneration, genetic transformation and the role of molecular tools in the genetic enhancement of the two-oilseed crops are discussed.

Keywords
Genetic diversity; Genetic transformation; Genomics; Molecular markers; Tissue culture; Wide hybridization
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Role of biotechnological interventions in the improvement of castor (Ricinus communis L.) and Jatropha curcas L.
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Publisher
Database: Elsevier - ScienceDirect
Journal: Biotechnology Advances - Volume 26, Issue 5, September–October 2008, Pages 424–435
Authors
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Subjects
Physical Sciences and Engineering Chemical Engineering Bioengineering
Get Full-Text Now
Don't Miss Today's Special Offer
Price was $35.95
You save - $31
Price after discount Only $4.95
100% Money Back Guarantee
Full-text PDF Download
Online Support
Any Questions? feel free to contact us