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Progress on molecular breeding and metabolic engineering of biosynthesis pathways of C30, C35, C40, C45, C50 carotenoids

Paper ID Volume ID Publish Year Pages File Format Full-Text
14831 1258 2007 12 PDF Available
Title
Progress on molecular breeding and metabolic engineering of biosynthesis pathways of C30, C35, C40, C45, C50 carotenoids
Abstract

At least 700 natural carotenoids have been characterized; they can be classified into C30, C40 and C50 subfamilies. The first step of C40 pathway is the combination of two molecules of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate to synthesize phytoene by phytoene synthase (CrtB or PSY). Most natural carotenoids originate from different types and levels of desaturation by phytoene desaturase (CrtI or PDS + ZDS), cyclization by lycopene cyclase (CrtY or LYC) and other modifications by different modifying enzyme (CrtA, CrtU, CrtZ or BCH, CrtX, CrtO, etc.) of this C40 backbone. The first step of C30 pathway is the combination of two molecules of FDP to synthesize diapophytoene by diapophytoene synthase (CrtM). But natural C30 pathway only goes through a few steps of desaturation to form diaponeurosporene by diapophytoene desaturase (CrtN). Natural C50 carotenoid decaprenoxanthin is synthesized starting from the C40 carotenoid lycopene by the addition of 2 C5 units. Concerned the importance of carotenoids, more and more attention has been concentrated on achieving novel carotenoids. The method being used successfully is to construct carotenoids biosynthesis pathways by metabolic engineering. The strategy of metabolic engineering is to engineer a small number of stringent upstream enzymes (CrtB, CrtI, CrtY, CrtM, or CrtN), then use a lot of promiscuous downstream enzymes to obtain large number of novel carotenoids. Two key enzymes phytoene desaturase (CrtIm) and lycopene cyclase (CrtYm) have been modified and used with a series of downstream modifying enzymes with broad substrate specificity, such as monooxygenase (CrtA), carotene desaturase (CrtU), carotene hydroxylase (CrtZ), zeaxanthin glycosylase (CrtX) and carotene ketolase (CrtO) to extend successfully natural C30 and C40 pathways in E. coli. Existing C30 synthase CrtM to synthesize carotenoids with different chain length have been engineered and a series of novel carotenoids have been achieved using downstream modifying enzymes. C35 carotenoid biosynthesis pathway has been constructed in E. coli as described. C45 and C50 carotenoid biosynthesis pathways have also been constructed in E. coli, but it is still necessary to extend these two pathways. Those novel acyclic or cyclic carotenoids have a potential ability to protect against photooxidation and radical-mediated peroxidation reactions which makes them interesting pharmaceutical candidates.

Keywords
Natural carotenoids; Unnatural carotenoids; Extended pathways; Constructed pathways; CrtM
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Progress on molecular breeding and metabolic engineering of biosynthesis pathways of C30, C35, C40, C45, C50 carotenoids
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Publisher
Database: Elsevier - ScienceDirect
Journal: Biotechnology Advances - Volume 25, Issue 3, May–June 2007, Pages 211–222
Authors
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Subjects
Physical Sciences and Engineering Chemical Engineering Bioengineering
Get Full-Text Now
Don't Miss Today's Special Offer
Price was $35.95
You save - $31
Price after discount Only $4.95
100% Money Back Guarantee
Full-text PDF Download
Online Support
Any Questions? feel free to contact us