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Analysis and recognition of the GAGA transcription factor binding sites in Drosophila genes

Paper ID Volume ID Publish Year Pages File Format Full-Text
15193 1389 2011 8 PDF Available
Title
Analysis and recognition of the GAGA transcription factor binding sites in Drosophila genes
Abstract

The transcription factor GAGA, encoded by the gene Trl, controls expression of many Drosophila melanogaster genes. We have compiled the presently largest sample (120 sites) of published nucleotide sequences with experimentally confirmed binding to GAGA protein. Analysis of the sample has demonstrated that despite an apparent structural diversity of the GAGA sites, they fall into four distinct groups, namely, (1) the sites containing two GAG trinucleotides with no more than one nucleotide substitution in each and separated by spacers with a length of 1 or 3 nucleotides (GAGnGAG and GAGnnnGAG); (2) the sites containing a single GAGAG motif; (3) (GA)3–9 microsatellite repeats; and (4) the sites corresponding to three and more direct repeats of GAG trinucleotide homolog and its inverted repeats separated by spacers of various lengths. Using the software package SITECON, the methods were elaborated for recognizing the sites of GAGnGAG (method 1) and GAGnnnGAG (method 2) types in DNA sequences. Experimental verification confirmed the ability to interact with the GAGA factor for 72% of the sites predicted using method 1 and 94.5% of the sites predicted by method 2. Application of the experimentally verified methods to analyzing the localization of potential GAGA binding sites in the target genes of this transcription factor has demonstrated that the 5′-untranslated regions (5′UTRs) and first introns are enriched for these sites (two–threefold relative to the average occurrence frequency in the D. melanogaster genome) as compared with a moderate enrichment (not exceeding 1.5-fold) of promoter regions (−4000/+200 bp or −1000/+100 bp).

Graphical abstractFigure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slideHighlights► The GAGA factor binding sites can be arranged into four structural variants. ► Two computer methods for recognizing the GAGA sites were elaborated. ► The 5′UTRs and first introns of GAGA target genes are enriched for GAGA sites.

Keywords
GAGA transcription factor; Binding sites; Computer prediction; Drosophila
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Analysis and recognition of the GAGA transcription factor binding sites in Drosophila genes
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Publisher
Database: Elsevier - ScienceDirect
Journal: Computational Biology and Chemistry - Volume 35, Issue 6, 14 December 2011, Pages 363–370
Authors
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Subjects
Physical Sciences and Engineering Chemical Engineering Bioengineering
Get Full-Text Now
Don't Miss Today's Special Offer
Price was $35.95
You save - $31
Price after discount Only $4.95
100% Money Back Guarantee
Full-text PDF Download
Online Support
Any Questions? feel free to contact us