Advances in techniques for phosphorus analysis in biological sources
In general, conventional P analysis methods suffer from not only the fastidious extraction and pre-treatment procedures required but also the generally low specificity and poor resolution regarding the P composition and its temporal and spatial dynamics. More powerful yet feasible P analysis tools are in demand to help elucidating the biochemistry nature, roles and dynamics of various phosphorus-containing molecules in vitro and in vivo. Recent advances in analytical chemistry, especially in molecular and atomic spectrometry such as NMR, Raman and X-ray techniques, have enabled unique capability of P analysis relevant to submicron scale biochemical processes in individual cell and in natural samples without introducing too complex and invasive pretreatment steps. Great potential still remains to be explored in wider and more combined and integrated requests of these techniques to allow for new possibilities and more powerful P analysis in biological systems. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the available methods and recent developments in analytical techniques and their applications for characterization and quantification of various forms of phosphorus, particularly polyphosphate, in different biological sources.
Graphical abstract. Suites of analytical methods for detection and characterization of various forms of phosphorus present in biological sources.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload high-quality image (195 K)Download as PowerPoint slideHighlights► We review the available methods for analyzing various forms of phosphorus. ► Biological, chemical, molecular and microscopic phosphorus analysis methods are summarized. ► Principles, advantages and limitations of each technique are discussed. ► Examples of applications for each technique are provided.
Journal: Current Opinion in Biotechnology - Volume 23, Issue 6, December 2012, Pages 852–859