Current strategies for osteochondral regeneration: from stem cells to pre-clinical approaches
Damaged cartilage tissue has no functional replacement alternatives and current therapies for bone injury treatment are far from being the ideal solutions emphasizing an urgent need for alternative therapeutic approaches for osteochondral (OC) regeneration.The tissue engineering field provides new possibilities for therapeutics and regeneration in rheumatology and orthopaedics, holding the potential for improving the quality of life of millions of patients by exploring new strategies towards the development of biological substitutes to maintain, repair and improve OC tissue function. Numerous studies have focused on the development of distinct tissue engineering strategies that could result in promising solutions for this delicate interface. In order to outperform currently used methods, novel tissue engineering approaches propose, for example, the design of multi-layered scaffolds, the use of stem cells, bioreactors or the combination of clinical techniques.
► Osteochondral damage can lead to osteoarthritis; a socio-economic burden worldwide. ► Procedures are available on the market but the ideal solution has yet to be found. ► Revising on distinct strategies aiming at successful osteochondral regeneration. ► Strategies include currently used techniques and tissue engineered (TE) approaches. ► TE using cells, scaffolds and/or bioreactors, and promising animal model studies.
Journal: Current Opinion in Biotechnology - Volume 22, Issue 5, October 2011, Pages 726–733