Electrical contacting of redox proteins by nanotechnological means
Redox enzymes in bioelectronic devices usually lack direct electrical contact with electrodes, owing to the spatial separation of their redox centers from the conductive surfaces by the protein shells. The reconstitution of apo-enzymes on cofactor-functionalized nanostructures associated with electrodes provides a means to align the biocatalysts on the conductive surface and to electrically contact redox enzymes with electrodes. The reconstitution of apo-enzymes on cofactor-functionalized gold nanoparticles or carbon nanotubes has led to effective electrical communication between the redox proteins and the electrodes. Alternatively, the reconstitution of redox enzymes on molecular wires that enable electron tunneling or dynamic charge shuttling represent supramolecular biocatalytic nanostructures exhibiting electrical contact. The bioelectrocatalytic activities of the electrically wired reconstituted enzymes on electrodes have allowed the development of amperometric biosensors and biofuel cell elements.
Journal: Current Opinion in Biotechnology - Volume 17, Issue 6, December 2006, Pages 589–596