Novel thermophilic hemicellulases for the conversion of lignocellulose for second generation biorefineries
•Three new GH10 and GH67 glycosidases were isolated and characterized from thermophilic bacteria.•The GH10 xylanase shows very high transglycosylation activity to produce xylooligosaccharides.•GH10, GH67, and GH3 enzymes very efficiently cooperate for the hydrolysis of glucuronoxylans.•GH10, GH67, and GH3 catalyze the production of xylose from smart cooking pre-treated energy crop.
The biotransformation of lignocellulose biomasses into fermentable sugars is a very complex procedure including, as one of the most critical steps, the (hemi) cellulose hydrolysis by specific enzymatic cocktails. We explored here, the potential of stable glycoside hydrolases from thermophilic organisms, so far not used in commercial enzymatic preparations, for the conversion of glucuronoxylan, the major hemicellulose of several energy crops. Searches in the genomes of thermophilic bacteria led to the identification, efficient production, and detailed characterization of novel xylanase and α-glucuronidase from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius (GH10-XA and GH67-GA, respectively) and a α-glucuronidase from Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus (GH67-GC). Remarkably, GH10-XA, if compared to other thermophilic xylanases from this family, coupled good specificity on beechwood xylan and the best stability at 65 °C (3.5 days). In addition, GH67-GC was the most stable α-glucuronidases from this family and the first able to hydrolyse both aldouronic acid and aryl-α-glucuronic acid substrates. These enzymes, led to the very efficient hydrolysis of beechwood xylan by using 7- to 9-fold less protein (concentrations <0.3 μM) and in much less reaction time (2 h vs 12 h) if compared to other known biotransformations catalyzed by thermophilic enzymes. In addition, remarkably, together with a thermophilic β-xylosidase, they catalyzed the production of xylose from the smart cooking pre-treated biomass of one of the most promising energy crops for second generation biorefineries. We demonstrated that search by the CAZy Data Bank of currently available genomes and detailed enzymatic characterization of recombinant enzymes allow the identification of glycoside hydrolases with novel and interesting properties and applications.
Journal: Enzyme and Microbial Technology - Volume 78, October 2015, Pages 63–73