The presence of thiolated compounds allows the immobilization of enzymes on glyoxyl agarose at mild pH values: New strategies of stabilization by multipoint covalent attachment
Highly activated glyoxyl-supports rapidly immobilize proteins at pH 10 (where the ɛ-amino groups of the Lys groups of the protein surface are very reactive), and stabilize them by multipoint covalent attachment. However, they do not immobilize proteins at pH 8. This paper shows that the enzyme immobilization at this mild pH value is possible by incubation of the enzymes in the presence of different thiolated compounds (dithiothreitol, DTT; was selected as optimal reagent). The thiolated compounds (even the not reducing ones) stabilized the imino bonds formed at pH 8 between the aldehydes in the support and the amino groups of the protein. However, thiolated compounds are unable to reduce the imino bonds or the aldehyde groups and a final reduction step (e.g., using sodium borohydride) was always necessary. After enzyme immobilization through the most reactive amino group of the protein, the further incubation of this immobilized enzyme at pH 10 would improve the reactivity of the ɛ-amino groups of the Lys residues of the protein surface. Then, an intense multipoint covalent reaction of the enzyme with the dense layer of glyoxyl groups in the support could be obtained, increasing the stability of the immobilized enzyme. Using three different industrially relevant enzymes (penicillin G acylase from Escherichia coli (PGA), lipase from Bacillus thermocatenulatus (BTL2) and glutaryl acylase from Pseudomonas sp. (GA)), new immobilized-stabilized biocatalysts of the enzymes were produced. After reduction, the preparations incubated at pH 10 were more stable than those that were only immobilized and reduced at pH 8. In the case of the PGA, this preparation was even 4–5-fold more stable than those obtained by direct immobilization at pH 10 (around 40,000–50,000-fold more stable than the soluble enzyme).
Journal: Enzyme and Microbial Technology - Volume 45, Issues 6–7, December 2009, Pages 477–483