Differentiation of monocytes on a degradable, polar, hydrophobic, ionic polyurethane: Two-dimensional films vs. three-dimensional scaffolds
A degradable, polar, hydrophobic, ionic polyurethane (D-PHI), with physical properties comparable to those of peripheral arterial vascular tissue, was evaluated for monocyte interactions with two different physical forms: two-dimensional films and three-dimensional porous scaffolds. Monocytes, isolated from human whole blood, were seeded onto D-PHI films and scaffolds, and differentiated to monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) for up to 28 days. The effect of surface structure on the MDM phenotype was assessed by assaying: cell attachment (DNA), activation (intracellular protein expression, esterase and acid phosphatase (AP) activity) as well as pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-10, respectively). The cells on scaffolds exhibited an initial peak in total protein synthesized per DNA at 3 days; however, both substrates generated similar protein levels per DNA at all other time points. While scaffolds generated more esterase and AP per cell than for films, the cells on films expressed significantly more of these two proteins relative to their total protein produced. At day 7 (acute phase of monocyte activation), cells on films were significantly more activated than monocytes on the scaffolds as assessed by cell morphology and tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-10 levels. Histological analysis of scaffolds showed that cells were able to migrate throughout the three-dimensional matrix. By inducing a low inflammatory, high wound-healing phenotype monocyte, the negative effects of the foreign body reaction in vivo may be controlled in a manner possible to direct the vascular tissue cells into the appropriate functional phenotypes necessary for successful tissue engineering.
Journal: Acta Biomaterialia - Volume 7, Issue 1, January 2011, Pages 115–122