Use of micellar extraction and cloud point preconcentration for valorization of saponins from sisal (Agave sisalana) waste
•Micellar extraction using 7.5% (v/v) Triton X-100 achieved 98.4% saponins recovery.•Addition of Na2CO3 to sisal extract with Triton led preconcentration factor of 20.3.•The best adsorbent for Triton removal from preconcentrated sisal solution was Amberlite FPX-66.
Sisal (Agave sisalana) is the main hard fiber produced worldwide, with an estimated generation of 400 thousands t in 2011. From its leaves, only the hard fibers, which represent 3–5% of their weight, are removed. The remaining 95–97% is referred to as sisal waste and contains steroidal saponins that can be potentially used in foods, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals formulations, as well as for soil bioremediation. The present work aimed at to evaluate strategies for the extraction and concentration of saponins from sisal waste, focused on the use of clean solvents, such as water and ethanol. For this purpose, it was firstly performed a central composite rotatable design for the optimization of the extraction conditions followed by a comparison of this strategy with other methods (Soxhlet, ultrasound-assisted extraction and micellar extraction). Cloud point preconcentration was then tested, using several types and concentrations of salts. The use of orbital shaker extraction (200 rpm) with an ethanolic solution (30%, v/v) at 50 °C, a mass/volume ratio sisal/solvent of 0.17 (g/mL) for 4 h allowed a recovery of 38.6% of the saponins. When a micellar extraction strategy using 7.5% (v/v) of Triton X-100, under the above-mentioned conditions was performed, saponins recovery raised to 98.4%. In a subsequent step, the addition of 20% (m/v) sodium carbonate led to a preconcentration factor of 20.3. The best adsorbent for Triton removal from the preconcentrated solution was Amberlite FPX-66. The process strategy proposed in the present study showed to be efficient for saponins extraction and preconcentration from a low-cost, highly available agricultural waste.
Journal: Food and Bioproducts Processing - Volume 94, April 2015, Pages 601–609