In vitro degradation and cytotoxicity of Mg/Ca composites produced by powder metallurgy ☆
Mg/Ca (1 wt.%, 5 wt.%, 10 wt.% Ca) composites were prepared from pure magnesium and calcium powders using the powder metallurgy method, aiming to enlarge the addition of Ca content without the formation of Mg2Ca. The microstructures, mechanical properties and cytotoxicities of Mg/Ca composite samples were investigated. The corrosion of Mg/Ca composites in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM) for various immersion intervals was studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements and environmental scanning electron microscope, with the concentrations of released Mg and Ca ions in DMEM for various immersion time intervals being measured. It was shown that the main constitutional phases were Mg and Ca, which were uniformly distributed in the Mg matrix. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and elongation of experimental composites decreased with increasing Ca content, and the UTS of Mg/1Ca composite was comparable with that of as-extruded Mg–1Ca alloy. The corrosion potential increased with increasing Ca content, whereas the current density and the impedance decreased. It was found that the protective surface film formed quickly at the initial immersion stage. With increasing immersion time, the surface film became compact, and the corrosion rate of Mg/Ca composites slowed down. The surface film consisted mainly of CaCO3, MgCO3·3H2O, HA and Mg(OH)2 after 72 h immersion in DMEM. Mg/1Ca and Mg/5Ca composite extracts had no significant toxicity (p > 0.05) to L-929 cells, whereas Mg/10Ca composite extract induced ∼40% reduced cell viability.
Journal: Acta Biomaterialia - Volume 6, Issue 5, May 2010, Pages 1783–1791