Development of remineralizing, antibacterial dental materials
Light curable methacrylate dental monomers containing reactive calcium phosphate filler (monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCPM) with particle diameter of 29 or 90 μm) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) at 1:1 weight ratio in a powder:liquid ratio (PLR) of 1:1 or 3:1 and chlorhexidine diacetate (0 or 5 wt.%), were investigated. Upon light exposure, approximately 90% monomer conversion was gained irrespective of the formulation. Increasing the PLR promoted water sorption by the set material, induced expansion and enhanced calcium, phosphate and chlorhexidine release. Concomitantly, a decline in compressive and biaxial flexural strengths occurred. With a reduction in MCPM particle diameter, however, calcium and phosphate release was reduced and less deterioration in strength observed. After 24 h, the remaining MCPM had reacted with water and β-TCP, forming, within the set materials, brushite of lower solubility. This provided a novel means to control water sorption, component release and strength properties. Measurable chlorhexidine release was observed for 6 weeks. Both diffusion rate and total percentage of chlorhexidine release decreased with lowering PLR or by adding buffer to the storage solutions. Higher chlorhexidine release was associated with reduced bacterial growth on agar plates and in a biofilm fermenter. In cell growth media, brushite and hydroxyapatite crystals precipitated on the composite material surfaces. Cells spread on both these crystals and the exposed polymer composite surfaces, indicating their cell compatibility. These formulations could be suitable antibacterial, biocompatible and remineralizing dental adhesives/liners.
Journal: Acta Biomaterialia - Volume 5, Issue 7, September 2009, Pages 2525–2539